35th Annual Business Meeting

Quebec City ~ Ottawa ~ Washington, D.C.


President Warren Conklin (Lora)
Hon. John Einhorn (Jaci)
Hon. John Hawkinson (Regina)
Hon. William B. Keene (Pat)
Hon. Malcolm Mackey
Art Martin, Esquire (Chantal Cabour) Canada Only
Hon. Byron McMillan (Carol)
Hon. Kevin Midlam
Hon. Ron Owen & Hon. Cheryl Leininger D.C. Only
Hon. Robert Soares (Punky) D.C. Only
Hon. Marcus Tucker (Angelique Stephens) Canada Only
Hon. Roy Wonder (Barbara) D.C. Only
Diane Bowen, Chief Executive Officer
GUEST: Mrs. Jean Godfrey Canada Only

SATURDAY: Members arrived at various times in the evening and transferred to the Fairmont Le Cháteau Frontenac Hotel.  This 115 year-old hotel, designated a United Nations World Heritage Site, overlooks the St. Lawrence River.  “Nothing is more Quebec than a stay at the Cháteau Frontenac, the very symbol of the city, dominating the skyline from the top of Cap Diamard, the highest point in town.....built by Canadian Pacific railroad baron William Van Horne, who hoped to lure tourists with the promise of hotel luxury.”

SUNDAY: In the morning the group met for a walking tour of the historic section of Quebec City (Vieux Quebec), founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlian and developed over the years as a French-speaking town.  Starting at the Dufferin Terrace in Artillery Park, part of the fortification which defended Quebec starting in the 1600s with walls surrounding the city, the group walked the cobbled streets in Upper Town, seeing historic houses, the old fort, the Parliament Building, an architectural landmark, and ending at the Place Royale, the famous town plaza which is an important social center.  The group then was free for lunch and shopping in Lower Town, and returned to the Chatéau via a ride on the funicular that links Upper Town to Lower Town.  

In the evening the Welcome Dinner was held at La Crémaillère in Old Quebec City, a short walk from the hotel.  

MONDAY: In the morning the group met with the Honorable Robert Pidgeon, Juge en Chef Associé, Cour Supérieure du Québec.

There are currently 144 judgeships divided between Montreal and Quebec.  The Montreal Division and its surroundings, are served by 101 regular judges.  The Quebec Division is composed of 43 judges, 30 of which serve in Quebec, and the others in outlying districts.  The Court of Quebec includes three divisions: the Civil Division (which includes the Small Claims Division), the Criminal and Penal Division, and the Youth Division. The Civil Division hears cases involving between $7,001 and $70,000.  Cases involving $7,000 or less are heard in the Small Claims Division, where the parties must represent themselves, and cannot be represented by a lawyer.  The Superior Court decides civil cases involving more than $70,000, divorce and bankruptcy cases, and has jurisdiction to try serious criminal cases such as murder.  The Superior Court also acts as an appeal court for decisions rendered in the Lower Divisions of the Court.

The Criminal and Penal Division of the Court of Quebec hears criminal cases dealing with summary conviction offences, as well as cases where the accused chooses to be tried before a judge alone instead of a judge and jury.  The Youth Division hears cases of adoption and youth protection, as well as criminal cases where the accused was a minor at the time of the offence.  

Judges are appointed to lifetime positions by the Federal government, mandatory retirement is at age 75; 70 in the provincial courts.  Lower Court judges make $215,000 (Canadian) per year and Superior Court and Appellate Justices make $260,000 per year.

Judges must travel in the provinces to hear cases, and the Canadian courts do a lot of video and telephonic conferencing to avoid traveling long distances for the parties and the Court.  Justice Pidgeon spent the morning prior to the meeting on administrative conference calls because of a weather (hurricane) problem in the Northeast United States moving into Canada.  

The Chief Justice and Associate Chief Justice can go on-line at any time and listen into court proceedings taking place within their jurisdictions.  Justice Pidgeon took the Academy group into an automated “regular” courtroom, and then into a large security courtroom to see the technology setup.  All proceedings are recorded, court reporters have not been used for many years in Canadian courts.  Information on dockets, calendars and procedures of the courts are all maintained on court websites.

Court proceedings are held in English or French, whichever is chosen, and sometimes simultaneously. 60% of Quebeckers are bi-lingual; 15% speak French only. 

TUESDAY: The group enjoyed a full day of sightseeing, visiting the Island of Orleans, a protected historical district of the province and Ste-Pétronille, including a visit to Le Jardin des Arts, a local art gallery, and Le Domaine Steinbach, a 30-acre estate composed of an ancestral home and farm.  A group lunch was at Montmorency Falls (272 feet high) at the Manoir Montmorency located at the top of the Falls on the outdoor terrace.  After lunch the group continued to the Beaupŕe Coast visiting the Ste-Anne-de-Beaupŕe Basilica, built in 1923.

WEDNESDAY: The group left Quebec for a motor coach transfer to Ottawa, stopping along the way for lunch at the Sugaring-off Time at la Sucrerie de la Montague, a maple sugar farm serving authentic Quebecois specialities and hospitality, inside 100 year-old restored barns, large enough to welcome 650 guests at a time, complete with authentic wood stoves, fireplaces, pine banquet tables, oil lamps, handwoven drapes and decorative bouquets of wild flowers, while outside the fall foliage of the maple trees was stunning.  In the afternoon the group arrived at the Fairmont Cháteau Laurier Hotel.

THURSDAY: In the morning the group met with the Registrar of the Supreme Court of Canada, Anne Roland, and enjoyed a tour of the Supreme Court Courtroom and Chambers.  The Supreme Court justices were attending a retreat.  

Courts of law began to appear in 18th century Quebec, which at that time was “Lower Canada” and Ontario “Upper Canada,” and in the Maritime colonies.  Judicial records from 1750 survive from Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.  In 1774 The Quebec Act defined powers for creating British-style criminal, civil and ecclesiastical courts in Quebec, alongside the much more ancient French courts.  A Constitutional Act of 1791 created the Provinces in Upper and Lower Canada, and established new courts for each Province.  The first Court of Appeal was created in 1840, and in 1847 the British North America Act created a united Canada and defined basic elements of the country’s judicial system.  During this time decisions from provincial courts were appealed to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London for a final decision.

In 1867 a Constitution Act provided for the new federal Parliament to create a general court of appeal for Canada.  This Act was used by Parliament a few years later to create the Supreme Court of Canada, however, decisions of the new Supreme Court could still be appealed to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London for final judgments.  The Judicial Committee’s appellate jurisdiction over Canada ended in 1933 for criminal appeals and in 1949 for civil appeals.

The original six members of the Court signed their oaths of office in 1875.  In 1927 the Court increased to seven judges, and in 1949, with the abolition of appeals to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London, the Court reached its present total of nine members.  The Supreme Court Act requires that three judges be appointed from Quebec, and traditionally the federal government appoints three from Ontario, two from the Western provinces and one from the Maritime (Atlantic) provinces.  The present Chief Justice is the Rt. Hon. Chief Justice of Canada, Beverley McLauchlin.  The Chief Justice divides the work of the Court by choosing the panels of judges to hear the cases and motions brought before it.  

Judges must devote themselves exclusively to their judicial duties.  No judge may hold any other remunerative office under the federal or provincial government, nor engage in any business enterprise. They must reside in the National Capital Region or within 40  kilometres thereof.

The Court will start the Fall term with eight judges following the recent retirement of Judge Michel Bastarache after 11 years on the Supreme Court.  Prime Minister Harper appointed Mr. Justice Thomas Cromwell from the Nova Scotia Court of Appeal in September before Parliament was dissolved; at this time the nomination was still pending due to the upcoming October election.  If the Court begins with eight, the Chief Justice will choose one member to “sit out” on cases.

The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court.  It is the final court of appeal, the last judicial resort for all litigants, individuals or government office.  Its jurisdiction is both the civil law and common law of all provinces and territories. 

There are provincial and territorial courts whose judges are appointed by the provincial and territorial governments.  The next level of courts are the Superior Courts whose judges are appointed by the federal government.  There are also Federal Courts of Appeal, the Federal Trial Courts and the Tax Courts of Canada, whose jurisdiction is over federal statutes.  

The Supreme Court of Canada hears appeals from all lower courts.  Leave to appeal is first obtained from a panel of three judges of the Court, if they believe the case involves a question of public importance or raises an important issue of law that warrants consideration by the Court.  “The judges circulate a list of the cases they plan to grant or deny, but at the end of the day, the cases are picked by the panel.”  Cases for which leave to appeal is not required are primarily criminal cases where one judge in the Court of Appeal dissents on a point of law.  Cases can also be referred by the governor asking the Court to give an opinion on a question of law such as the constitutionality of an interpretation of federal or provincial legislation, or the division of powers between the federal and provincial levels of government.  The Supreme Court receives approximately 600 applications for leave to appeal annually, but hears only about 11%.  The Court will hear cases via videoconferencing due to the expense of traveling to Ottawa; videoconferencing began in 1984.  In the early 1990s the Court introduced the option to broadcast hearings on public television.  Canada also does this with parliamentary debates which are recorded and telecast at a later time.  Supreme Court counsel must sign an acknowledgment that they will be telecast.

The decision of the Court is sometimes rendered at the conclusion of the hearing, but more often, judgment is reserved to enable the judges to write considered “reasons.”  Decisions need not be unanimous, a majority may decide, with dissenting reasons given by the minority.  Each judge may write reasons in any case if they choose to do so.  Judgments in both official languages are published in the Canada Supreme Court Reports and can be accessed on the internet at www.scc-csc.gc.ca.

The Academy judges enjoyed a tour of the Supreme Court building, built in 1946 and designed by renowned Montreal architect Ernest Cormier on a bluff above the Ottawa River. The Academy judges saw the main courtroom, the judges’ chambers and conference room, and the library/bibliothéque, which has a collection containing over 350,000 English and French language volumes.

The Academy group then visited the University of Ottawa, Faculty of Law, Common Law Section, and met with Dean Bruce Feldthusen, and enjoyed lunch at the school while meeting with the following professors: Jane Bailey, Civil Procedure; Shalin Sukunasiri, Criminal Evidence and Constitutional Law; David McNairn, Visiting Professor from the Department of Justice teaching Criminal Justice Advocacy; David Paciocco, Criminal Law; David Fewer, Legal Counsel to the Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic; and Joanne St. Lewis, Human Rights Research and Education.  Nathalie DesRosiers, Dean of the Civil Law Section, also attended and discussed some of the differences in the curriculum between Common Law and Civil Law Sections.

Dean Feldthusen obtained his LL.M. and S.J.D. from the University of Michigan and is a member of the Bar of Ontario.  He has been the Dean of the Common Law Section since 2000.  Prior to that he taught Torts, Administrative Law, Remedies and Human Rights.  He is best known for his book Economic Negligence.  His analysis of economic loss has been adopted by the Supreme Court of Canada and now provides the organizing framework for all negligence actions in that field.  He has also co-authored Canadian Tort Law, and  assisted trial counsel in a number of high profile class actions in torts.  He has done extensive study and writings about civil remedies for victims of sexual assault.  He works frequently as a litigation consultant and has assisted in the preparation of numerous Supreme Court of Canada factum and arguments during the past decade.

The University of Ottawa has the largest Common Law Section in Canada and yearly receives the most applications of any Canadian law school.  It is also the most “complicated.”  “Studies are conducted bi-lingually in French and English and anyone may speak in any language with the expectation that they will be understood.”  There are more U.S. students studying at this school than there are Canadian students studying in the whole United States, and there are students and faculty from over 150 countries.  

The Civil Law Section was established in 1953 and the Common Law Section in 1960, providing a full service legal education, complemented by areas of specialization that prepare students for entrance to the practice of law or other careers in the public and private sectors where a legal education is required or beneficial.  “Our programs concentrate on more than just the letter of the law.  We address the spirit of the law and the ideal of justice.”

The opportunity to study law in English or French is one of the distinct advantages offered by the University, so students are able to practice law in both Canadian official languages.  The course is three years and there are also graduate programs, internships, research projects, and international exchanges.  
Professor Joanne St. Lewis with the Human Rights Research and Education Centre discussed the “Aboriginal Justice Strategy,” a federal program to assist the Aboriginal community.  Aboriginal people represent approximately 4% of the Canadian population, however, they account for 20% of provincial admissions to custody and 18% federal admissions.  75% of on-reserve crime and nearly 90% off-reserve crime involves non-violent property offenses or lesser offenses like public mischief and disturbing the peace.  Community-based justice programs have been developed in over 400 communities across Canada.  Nearly 80% of the community programs involve diversion.  Increased involvement and strengthened capacity of Aboriginal communities fosters the development of appropriate responses to justice issues faced by Aboriginal people.5  The University has a program for Aboriginal pre-law students, and works with schools in Quebec to recruit Inuit students to the University; some classes are co-taught by tribal elders with law school professors.

At the conclusion of the meeting, the Academy presented Dean Feldthusen with a donation of $1,000 to be used for scholarship purposes.

After the University, the Academy judges visited the Federal Court of Canada and met with Chief Justice Allan Lutfy and Justice Robert L. Barnes.  The Federal Court, created in 1971,  is Canada’s national trial court which hears claims against the Government of Canada, civil suits in federally regulated areas and challenges to the decisions of federal tribunal courts.  Its authority derives from the Federal Courts Act. The Court consists of a Chief Justice and 32 other judges, at present there are 4 vacancies on the court. In July of 2003 the court was divided into two separate courts, a Federal Court of Appeal and a Federal (trial) Court.  Pursuant to the Federal Court Act, the court has the power to review decisions of all federal boards, commissions or other tribunals, and also has jurisdiction in claims regarding immigration, citizenship, admiralty, customs, intellectual property, tax, labour relations, transportation, communications, parole and penitentiary proceedings, as well as some limited criminal jurisdiction. Intellectual property includes copyright, design patents and trademarks infringements.

Geographically the Court may sit anywhere in Canada and regularly conducts hearings and renders decisions in disputes across the country.  Orders of the Court are binding in every province and territory. The Federal Court shares jurisdiction with the provincial superior courts with respect to claims by and against the Crown involving First Nations’ claims regarding inherent aboriginal rights and treaty rights, contractual disputes relating to the provision of goods and services to the federal government and civil liability claims for injury by agents of the federal government.

The Chief Justice discussed current issues important to Canada and the Court.  There are many immigration issues facing the Canadian Courts.  There is presently a case getting a lot of attention regarding a Canadian who is on death row in Montana.  Canada has not had the death penalty since 1976 and has always tried to help its citizens facing it abroad.  Last year, the Liberal Leader of the House of Commons challenged the Government to intervene in the case, saying the government must oppose the death penalty wherever it is practiced. Prime Minister Harper’s Conservative government reversed that long-standing policy, and will not seek clemency, commutation or extradition where Canadian citizens have been convicted and sentenced in a democratic nation.  Opponents of the new policy are still trying to challenge it by appealing the change in Federal Court, and two motions have been made in parliament that, if approved, would direct the Prime Minister to reverse his decision.

The Chief Justice talked about a Canadian being held in Guantanamo Bay, Omar Khadr, accused of killing a U.S. soldier in Afghanistan in 2002, when he was 15 years old. Canadian civil rights groups have asked U.S. officials to have Mr. Khadr serve his sentence in his own country.  The Canadian Government takes the position that due process in the U.S. should be allowed to run its course.

After the meeting, Andrew Baumberg, Executive Officer to the Chief Justice, arranged for the Academy judges to tour the Parliament buildings.  Located across the street on Parliament Hill, overlooking the Ottawa River and Rideau Canal, the Parliament buildings were originally built from 1859-1865.  The Centre Block burned down in 1916 and was re-built as it stands today.  The Parliament buildings house the House of Commons and Senate.  Canada’s Parliament consists of the Queen as the Head of State, and is represented by the Governor General, the appointed Senate and the Elected House of Commons. The Governor General calls Parliament together after every general election, reads the Speech from the Throne outlining the government’s objectives and approves all bills passed by the Senate and House of Commons.  The Senate has 105 members appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister to represent regions, provinces or territories.  The House of Commons has 308 members, who are elected to represent the people.  The Canadian Constitution provides that Parliament cannot last longer than five years, after which a general election must be held.  Parliament is made up or one or more sessions.  A session can last a few days or several years.  A Parliament session comes to an end when the Prime Minister asks the Governor General to dissolve it and call for a general election. Coincidentally, the Prime Minister had called for an election to be held on October 14th, and debates were being televised while the Academy members were in Ottawa, at the same time as U.S. presidential and vice-presidential debates were being broadcast.

After seeing the Senate Chamber, and the House of Commons, the group was taken to see the Parliament Library, usually not open for public viewing.  The library was designed in the High Victorian Gothic Revival Style and opened in 1876.  It’s circular shape with galleries and alcoves was designed by the first Parliamentary Librarian who recommended that the building be spacious and lofty and separated from the centre block of Parliament by a corridor to protect it from fire.  It was threatened in the 1916 fire, but its iron doors isolated it from the blaze.  In 1952 there was a fire which caused smoke and water damage.  In 2006 it re-opened after four years of rehabilitation, retaining much of the original character of thousands of flowers, masks and mythical beasts carved into white pine paneling.  The galleries display the coats of arms of the provinces existing in 1876, and in the center of the room is a white marble statue of the young Queen Victoria.6  Members visited the Parliament Buildings for as long as they desired, and walked the short distance back to the Chateau Laurier from Parliament.

FRIDAY: The group took a full day sightseeing tour, including a city tour of Ottawa.  A visit to the Museum of Civilization was a highlight of the day, housing more exhibits than the group had time to experience. There was a Grand Hall depicting the cultural heritage of the Aboriginal People, which included exhibits exploring their cultural diversity and contributions through 20,000 years of history and their continuing relationship to the Land; The First People’s Hall highlighting the history, diversity and contributions of Canada’s First Peoples; and a Canadian Postal Museum. The Canada Hall had exhibits  showing 1,000 years of Canadian history, using life-sized environments.

The Academy then proceeded to lunch at the Empire Grill followed by free time for shopping in the Byward Market, one of Canada’s oldest and largest public markets, followed by a  Rideau Canal boat cruise where the group enjoyed views of the city and a historical presentation by the guide of the development and rise of Ottawa as a city and a seat of government.  The balance of the day was free. 

SATURDAY: The day was free in Ottawa, and many in the group visited the National Gallery, within walking distance of the hotel.  In the evening the group met for a Farewell Canada Dinner at Restaurant Soćial.  In appreciation for providing contacts for the Canadian court visits and the University of Ottawa meeting, Mr. William C. Johnson and his wife Susan were invited by the Academy to the dinner.  The group presented President Warren Conklin with a souvenir gift from the Canadian Parliament as a token of their appreciation for all his hard work in putting the trip together.  Guest Jean Godfrey, Honorary Member Art Martin & Chantal Cabour, and Judge Marcus Tucker and daughter Angelique Stephens left the trip the following morning.

SUNDAY: After a free morning the group flew to Washington, D.C. and transferred to The Liaison Hotel. Judge Ron Owen and Commissioner Cheryl Leininger, Judge Robert and Punky Soares, and Judge Roy and  Barbara Wonder joined the trip.

In the evening, the group enjoyed a Washington, D.C. After Dark Tour, seeing many of the monuments and federal buildings, with a “step-off” at the Capitol Building, the Jefferson, Lincoln, Korean and FDR Memorials.

MONDAY: The morning was free.  The group attended the afternoon opening session of the Supreme Court.  Arguments were given in the case of Betty E. Vaden v. Discover Bank, et al..  This was an appeal from the U.S. District Court of Maryland, via the U.S. Court of Appeals, 4th Circuit, on a Motion by Discover Bank to compel arbitration.  Discover had originally brought a state suit to recover on an outstanding credit card balance, but Counterclaims were brought by Plaintiff, alleging that certain fees and interest rates had been charged in violation of state law.  The matter was removed to Federal Court by Discover to compel arbitration under Section 4 of the Federal Arbitration Act.  The U.S. District court of Maryland granted the motion, but did not address whether it had subject matter jurisdiction to hear the case.  The 4th Circuit Court held that the District Court did have jurisdiction because the underlying dispute presented a federal question.  In asking the Supreme Court to take the case, Plaintiff’s attorneys pointed to a split among other circuit courts as to whether a suit seeking enforcement of an arbitration clause or agreement arises under federal law as long as the underlying dispute between the parties is a matter of federal law, or whether federal question subject matter jurisdiction exists only when the petition seeking to compel arbitration raises a federal question.  An opinion has not been issued as of this writing.

Following the Supreme Court arguments the group was met by a guide from the Historical Society of the Supreme Court and took a behind the scenes tour of the Court.  Construction of the Supreme Court building was begun in 1932 and completed in 1935.  “The building was designed on a scale in keeping with the importance and dignity of the Court and the Judiciary as a coequal, independent branch of the United States government, and as a symbol of ‘the national ideal of justice in the highest sphere of activity.’”8  The building entrance is the Great Hall from which the Court Chamber is entered.  The raised Bench on which the Justices sit, was altered in 1972 from a straight line to a “winged” shape to provide sight and sound advantages over the original design.  The main floor contains the Justices’ chambers, including offices for the law clerks and secretaries, and conference rooms.  This office space surrounds four courtyards, each with a central fountain.  The second floor is office space for administration offices, the Justices’ Library Reading Room and the Justices’ Dining Room.  The third floor contains the Supreme Court Library, which houses a collection of more than 450,000 volumes, and on-line systems are also used.  The ground floor houses the Clerk of the Court, administration offices, and the group’s favorite -- the Supreme Court Gift Shop, where members enjoyed shopping, and some joined the Supreme Court Historical Society.


At 5:30 p.m. at the Liaison Hotel, the annual business meeting was convened, with all members in attendance.  President Warren Conklin welcomed all Academy Fellows.  He discussed the court visits in Quebec and Ottawa.  He expressed his appreciation to Diane Bowen for all her hard work in coordinating the travel plans with Gabriel at Creative Travel Planners and presented her with a gift to commemorate the trip.

Upon motion by Judge Kevin Midlam, second by Commissioner Cheryl Leininger, the minutes of the France trip from October 13 to October 27, 2007 were approved as written.

The Treasurer’s Report submitted by Judge Keene reflected a beginning balance of $2,223.01 from October 16, 2007.  Income derived from dues, initiation fees and scholarship donations totaled $5,725. Expenses were $3,951.83.  The balance on hand as of October 6, 2008 was $3,996.18.  The report was unanimously approved as presented.

The Membership Report as submitted by CEO Diane Bowen was discussed.  There are six new members, one Honorary Member from Scotland, and three pending nominations.  In accordance with the Bylaws, and upon Motion by Judge Soares, second by Judge Midlam, one member was dropped for non-payment of the 2007 and 2008 dues.  There are presently five members who have not paid the 2008 dues, and they will be contacted by members of their court.

As the Founding Member of the IATJ, and the Chair of the Nominating Committee, Judge Keene, who was the lone attending member of the committee traditionally comprised of all former Academy presidents, spoke about the first trip 35 years ago to Hawaii, the history of the organization, and how the logo was designed.  He presented the slate of officers for 2009, nominating Judge Dick Frazee as President, Judge Kevin Midlam as President-elect, and Judge Malcolm Mackey as Chancellor.  In the interest of facilitating the banking arrangements, Judge Keene will continue to serve as the Secretary-Treasurer.  There were no further nominations from the floor.  The nominations were moved closed by Judge Robert Soares, second by Commissioner Leininger; the nominations were unanimously approved by acclamation.

Honorary Member nominations were proposed as follows: William C. Johnson, Esquire, Justice Robert L. Barnes and Chief Justice Allan Lutfy, Federal Court of Canada, Judge Robert Pidgeon, Supérieure du Québec, and the Hon. Allan J. MacEachen.  Motion  to approve the nominations by Judge Midlam, second by Judge McMillan; unanimously approved.

Diane presented plans for the 2009  Panama and Costa Rica trip proposed by Judge Frazee.  Members indicated they had thought Judge Frazee was considering Ireland and/or Scotland and/or England.  After much discussion, it was the consensus of the group that they would prefer the more expensive trip to Europe, even if the dollar is weak.  (In light of this, the 2009 trip was planned to Edinburgh, Scotland, and London, England, with an extension to Ireland.)  The meeting was adjourned at 6:30 p.m.

TUESDAY: The group had a full day of sightseeing starting with a visit to Mt. Vernon, George Washington’s home.  Acquired in 1754 by Washington, he lived there for 45 years until his death.  He expanded his home to reflect his status as a Virginia gentleman, personally overseeing every detail of design, construction and decoration, even when away at war.  The interior of the home has been restored based on a 1799 inventory taken at the time of Washington’s death, with the vibrant wall colors that demonstrated the Washingtons’ wealth and style.  Washington, his wife Martha and other family members are buried at Mt. Vernon.  The original plantation was comprised of 8,000 acres and included a working farm.  Washington pioneered many innovative farming methods, including crop rotation and the use of fertilizers.  

Lunch was in Alexandria, followed by a guided “tourmobile” ride in Arlington Cemetery, including visits to the Tomb of the Unknowns and seeing the Changing of the Guard, and  President Kennedy’s grave site. Thereafter, the group saw the Marine Corps War Memorial, also known as the Iwo Jima Memorial, dedicated in 1954 by President Eisenhower, and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall, containing 58,256 names inscribed in chronological order by the date of casualty.  The wall is 246.75 feet long; dedicated on November 13, 1982 by President Reagan, the $7M cost was raised entirely through contributions.  The balance of the day was free.

WEDNESDAY: In the morning the group visited Congressman Kevin McCarthy’s office (R-22nd district, CA), and his staff escorted the group on a tour of the Capitol Building.  “The United States Capitol is among the most architecturally impressive and symbolically important buildings in the world.......Begun in 1793, the Capitol has been built, burnt, rebuilt, extended and restored; today, it stands as a monument not only to its builders but also to the American people and their government.”9  The group visited the Rotunda, the Hall of Columns, the restored old Supreme Court Chamber, the National Statuary Hall and the Old Senate Chambers, and the third floor visitor’s gallery for the House of Representatives and the Senate.  The balance of the day was free and many members visited Smithsonian museums and more monuments.

In the evening the group enjoyed a Farewell Dinner at Bistro Bis near the hotel, and were joined by former Law Clerks who worked with Diane Bowen, Paul Rosen, of counsel to (at that time) Senator Biden, and David Thompson, Law Clerk to Justice Scalia this term.  The young attorneys talked with the Academy judges about their careers and how they are enjoying their present assignments in Washington, D.C.  The group again thanked Judge Conklin and Joey for all their work on the trip, and presented them with a gift from the Supreme Court Gift Shop to remind them of the trip.

THURSDAY: The group left for home.

Written By Diane Z. Bowen, Chief Executive Officer

Warren C. Conklin, President

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